Technology is an ever-expanding field of human endeavor that involves the application of technology in various fields to increase the effectiveness of the existing systems, create new ones, or enhance the performance of existing systems. Technological progress is sometimes referred to as the ‘field of the future’, since there is a promising but yet unfulfilled future for technologies in numerous sectors. Technological change is usually associated with the growth of information technology, especially with computer technology. This branch of engineering deals mainly with the use of information technology in its many forms – from computer programs to complex communication systems.
Science is the collection of knowledge on all the different types of natural things in the universe, including those which are not life such as rocks. The scope of science includes all of the physical sciences plus the social sciences plus the humanities and includes many sub-disciplines. The other major division of science is engineering, which, together with biology, encompasses the physical sciences. Engineering can be specialized in several ways, depending on the type of discipline involved. For example, transportation engineering deals with the design and construction of transportation systems, while chemical engineering deals mostly with the chemical properties of things.
There are three basic areas of specialization in science: physical science which deal with the study of matter and how it is constructed; biological science which studies the development of living matter; and social science that studies society and culture. Within these three general fields of science, there are also sub-disciplines. One of the most recent fields to develop as a part of technology is artificial intelligence. The study of Artificial Intelligence is concerned with the development of computers, which can process natural language, solve problems, and make generalizations about real-world data. One of the main areas of research in Artificial Intelligence is how machines can beat human champions at chess.
Technological change often results in a backlash against the established scientific knowledge. This may result in a shift from a mode of thinking about a new technology to more theoretical ones. This can affect all areas of science. Changing modes of thought about science and technology can have long-lasting effects on society, making even established scientific knowledge questionable in certain areas of research and technology.
The third major area of study in science is technological anthropology. This is an area of study that examines the relationship between modern technologies and human life. It focuses on questions such as Why do we need new technologies? What purposes do some types of technologies serve?
Nontraditional scientific disciplines such as those in the field of geology have been influential in providing different answers to these questions. In particular, paleontologists have had a profound impact on the development of modern technology. One of the most influential discoveries made by paleontologists was the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. Other areas of science that are considered nontraditional are aerospace, alternative energy sources, alternative medicine, toy designing, computer chip technology, satellite applications, television applications, and gaming. Even topics such as global warming have been the subject of nontraditional theories in the past.